Square Enix today announced that the Final Fantasy XIV Online: Starter Edition, a massively multiplayer online role-playing game set in the Final Fantasy universe, is free to download on Playstation 4 from now until 26 May, after which you can keep it forever.
If you have a Playstation 4 and an account already, all you need to do is head to the Playstation store, either here or on your console, and navigate to the game’s page. You’ll notice the Starter Edition is free, but this isn’t a crippled or lite version. It comes with the full A Realm Reborn quest line and dozens of hours of scripted gameplay, as well as the infinite entertainment that comes with human interaction in a massively multiplayer game. To that end, you’ll get 30 days of game time with your free purchase of FFXIV, after which you’ll need to pay for a monthly subscription.
According to a blog post from Square Enix:
The FINAL FANTASY XIV Online Starter Edition is perfect for newcomers to begin their adventure. It includes the entire story of A Realm Reborn, including all of the updates that game received. That’s dozens of hours-worth of main scenario quests, side quests, dungeons, raids, and extra content.
You can also play as any class or job from the original release all the way up to level 50, so you can experiment with the different options to your hearts content with no restrictions to worry about.
Long story short, the Starter Edition’s a risk-free way to dip your toe into the vibrant realm of Eorzea and see if the many adventures within are for you. And considering that it’s currently free (unless you’re reading this after May 26, 2020), and includes 30 days of free game time too, there’s no reason not to try it out.
I’m currently gearing up for a long weekend with the Final Fantasy VII Remake to fight off my isolation blues (more on that at a later date), but a healthy dose of multiplayer gaming might be just what I need to truly shake off the funk.
If Final Fantasy isn’t your thing or you don’t own a PlayStation, don’t forget that Civilization VI is currently free on the Epic Games Store from now until 28 May, and GOG is giving away The Witcher along with copies of Gwent until further notice.
How cosmic rays may have sparked life on Earth — and what this could mean for life on other planets
Long before animals roamed the Earth, before the first bacteria, and even before the development of DNA, tiny molecules found they could make simple copies of themselves.
Cosmic rays pouring down from space constantly bombarded those molecules as they replicated, and developed over time. These particles, raining down from distant stars and galaxies, could have played a significant role in the what would become the chemistry of life.
Mirror, mirror, on the wall…
Molecules can take on various shapes as they form during reactions. Some of these molecules can be mirror images of molecules having the same number and types of molecules, but bound together in different shapes.
Some of these shapes can be mirror images of each other, similar to the way hands are opposite images of each other. They line up if faced palm-to-palm or back-to-back, but they cannot be placed evenly upon one another with both hands up or down.
When chemicals take on similar mirror shapes, they are known as chiral molecules. This chirality of molecules is sometimes known as handedness, due to its relation to human hands. This property of chiral molecules can have significant effects on reactions within living structures.
Inorganic reactions are oblivious to the handedness of chemicals. However, reactions involving every single important biomolecule — DNA, RNA, and amino acids — life uses just one form of molecules. Attempting to use the mirror twin can often result in unexpected — often tragic — results. A single wrong-handed molecule in DNA can destroy its spiral structure.
“The ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids (RNA and DNA), responsible for the replication and storage of genetic information, are made up of linear sequences of building blocks with the same handedness, called nucleotides, whose arrangement is neither periodic nor random and contains the genetic information needed to sustain life,” researchers explain in an article detailing their findings, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.
You can call me ‘ray’
The chiral nature of some chemicals was first discovered in 1848, by famed chemist Louis Pasteur. This led to wild speculations, attempting to understand why biological reactions are so uniquely fussy about the handedness of chemicals. Pasteur’s early guess, more than a century-and-a-half ago, was that a basic, underlying asymmetry in nature was responsible for differences in left- and right-handed molecules in biological systems.
This new study suggests the biased way nature handles chemicals for life may be the result of cosmic rays coming from space long ago.
“We propose that the biological handedness we witness now on Earth is due to evolution amidst magnetically polarized radiation, where a tiny difference in the mutation rate may have promoted the evolution of DNA-based life, rather than its mirror image,” said Noémie Globus of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC).
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, created by energetic processes around the Cosmos, bombarding Earth from all directions at enormous speeds.
“About 90 percent of them are protons, with the remainder consisting of electrons and atomic nuclei. In their journey across the galaxy, the electrically charged particles are deflected by magnetic fields. This scrambles their paths and makes it impossible to trace their origins directly,” NASA describes.
This energy strikes the atmosphere of Earth, where it breaks apart into fundamental sub-atomic particles. By the time they reach the ground, most of this energy is in the form of muons, a type of particle unlike normal matter.
Muons are exceptionally unstable, existing for just two millionths of a second. However, they travel close to the speed of light, meaning they can cover plenty of distance during that time — being detected as deep as 700 meters (2,300 feet) underground.
These particles are also magnetically polarized — meaning they all share the same magnetic polarization. When they decay, these particles release an electron (the familiar negatively-charged particle found in the outer clouds of atoms). These electrons created each share the same magnetic polarization.
Researchers believe these polarized muons, able to penetrate nearly any barrier, combined with the similarly-polarized electrons, may have worked to together, influencing chiral reactions as life first began to form on Earth.
Over time, the constant bombardment by polarized muons and electrons would have preferentially affected each type of molecule, altering mutation rates between left- and right-handed protobiological molecules.
Just a small advantage of one state over the other would, over time, result in a long-term advantage, similar to a house edge in gambling casinos. Right-handed molecules eventually won the struggle, becoming the basis of all biology. The video below shows a look at how life on Earth may have started.
Such effects may also apply to worlds beyond the Earth, as well, researchers speculate. Conditions like these likely extend far into the Cosmos.
“We are irradiated all the time by cosmic rays. Their effects are small but constant in every place on the planet where life could evolve, and the magnetic polarization of the muons and electrons is always the same. And even on other planets, cosmic rays would have the same effects,” Globus explained.
Bacteria could be at the center of new studies examining how the microbes react to bombardment by radiation over a range of magnetic polarizations. Samples taken from comets and asteroids could also be examined, looking for a chiral bias in their internal structures.
By studying how cosmic rays affected chemistry during the dawn of life, we may learn more about life on worlds surrounding distant stars.
This article was originally published on The Cosmic Companion by James Maynard, founder and publisher of The Cosmic Companion. He is a New England native turned desert rat in Tucson, where he lives with his lovely wife, Nicole, and Max the Cat. You can read this original piece here.
Astronomy News with The Cosmic Companion is also available as a weekly podcast, carried on all major podcast providers. Tune in every Tuesday for updates on the latest astronomy news, and interviews with astronomers and other researchers working to uncover the nature of the Universe.
Xbox Series X will make old games look prettier
Microsoft continues its campaign of putting out details on the Xbox Series X, and today revealed that, in addition to having backwards compatibility, the XSX will employ some techno wizardry to make the older games much better looking than they originally were.
Jason Ronald, Director of Program Management for the new console, revealed in an Xbox Wire update that Microsoft’s augmenting the launch line-up of the XSX with older games. We already knew the console would be backwards compatible with games from every previous Xbox generation, but Ronald adds that, through some process that sounds pretty complicated, the company will make the games look better on XSX than they did on the original consoles:
Xbox Series X delivers a new, innovative HDR reconstruction technique which enables the platform to automatically add HDR support to games. As this technique is handled by the platform itself, it allows us to enable HDR with zero impact to the game’s performance and we can also apply it to Xbox 360 and original Xbox titles developed almost 20 years ago, well before the existence of HDR.
Ronald doesn’t mention how many games will get this next-gen glow-up, just that it can be applied to 360 and OG Xbox titles, which is pretty impressive considering how old those games are now. He also adds that “the compatibility team developed brand new innovations that could be applied to a hand curated list of titles to enhance them even further than what was possible when they were first created,” which includes bumping resolutions up to 4K and framerates up to 120fps.
The Xbox One, for all that it touts the feature now, didn’t have backwards compatibility at launch. And when Microsoft did incorporate the feature, it did so gradually, over a long period of time. But it seems the company has fully embraced it and is using it in the marketing push, which means the feature must have gone over well with Xbox One gamers.
Compare and contrast the PlayStation 5, the creators of which have been rather cagey about backwards compatibility. Initial reports seemed to imply the console would be compatible with about 100 PS4 games, but the company quickly reassured users that the majority of PS4 games would work on the new system. Then, around the same time this XSX report was released, a cached page on the official PlayStation site seemed to imply the console would only be able to play those games with a system update (though this doesn’t seem that unreasonable to me).
Either way, PlayStation head honcho Jim Ryan has made it clear he’d prefer if games that were made on the PS5 were exclusive to the console to convince more gamers to jump ship. That attitude is diametrically opposed by Microsoft, which says it’s not going to bother with launch exclusives because gamers will transition when they’re able to.
While Microsoft has tried to say it’s no longer rivals with Sony, it seems the two companies still make for good comparisons to each other.
Google’s Android Studio 4.0 is a major upgrade for the app development tool
Google has launched Android Studio 4.0, adding a host of new features to the app development environment.
The most eye-catching of the upgrades is a souped-up Motion Editor, Android’s interface for creating MotionLayout animations in apps. In previous versions of Android Studio, developers had to manually create and modify complex XML files to design their animations. The new Motion Editor generates the XML files for you, allowing you to create complex animations through a simply click-and-drag interface.
Android has also added new ways to look at your app’s design. They include an enhanced Layout Inspector, which provides a live preview of your app’s design in 3D, and an upgraded Layout Validation, which now gives you a view of the UI across multiple screen dimensions.
Further highlights include a Build Analyzer that helps you address bottlenecks in your build, a redesigned CPU Profiler, and Java 8 language APIs.
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